Search box is loading.....

Friday, June 30, 2000

Periodontics MCQ Answer 01 and 02

Friday, June 30, 2000

Answers: (b)

Anti-Tartar Products: One of the first products to venture beyond fluoride was tartar control toothpaste. The major anti-calculus strategy developed by researchers in the 1970s was to inhibit crystal growth, thus preventing the mineralization of developing plaque and the transition of the plaque into calculus. The most effective agents in vitro were the pyrophosphates, but in the oral cavity these were rapidly broken down by bacterial and salivary pyrophosphatase enzymes. In the 1980s, formulations were created using high concentrations of pyrophosphates (and other polyphosphate salts) that could be combined with sodium fluoride to both reduce tartar buildup (not preformed tartar) and retain anti-caries potency. The concentration of sodium fluoride was high enough to serve as an anti-enzyme and help inhibit the limiting pyrophosphatase enzymes in the mouth.

(Other anti-tartar formulations have not applied for nor received the ADA Seal. One such product, a toothpaste containing Citroxain -- a mixture of the enzyme papain, sodium citrate and alumina -- has some supporting published data and is marketed primarily as a whitening toothpaste.)

Mandel ID, Calculus update: Prevalence, pathogenicity and prevention. J Am Dent Assoc 126:573-80, 1995.

Tetrapotassium Pyrophosphate, Inhibits crystalline matrix

The addition of 1 percent of a copolymer of methoxy-ethylene and maleic acid (Gantrez, GAF Corp.) appears to improve the effectiveness of some anti-tartar products.


Schiff TG, Comparative clinical study of two anti-calculus dentifrices. Compend Cont Educ Dent (Suppl 8):S275-7, 1987.

The tartar control products that have received the ADA Seal have been shown in appropriately designed clinical studies to be effective decay preventives as well as to significantly reduce the formation of tartar above the gum line. A caveat is included on the label that such products have not been shown to have a therapeutic effect on periodontal disease. The anti-tartar ingredients are considered by both the ADA and FDA to be primarily cosmetic, not therapeutic. They do not affect the already hardened deposits.


Tartar control dentifrice containing 7.0% sodium hexametaphosphate (5% hexametaphosphate anion) Has been shown to demonstrate anti-tartar properties, but it is new, not approve and only one dentifrice lists it in it’s ingredients


A 0.5 percent zinc citrate combined with 0.2 percent triclosan – is an effective anti-bacterial agent;5 triclosan and the polymer Gantrez;7 and pyrophosphate and triclosan.8 The triclosan/Gantrez combination is part of a multibenefit product that has been approved by the ADA and FDA and is awaiting marketing in the United States.


Total brand toothpaste is essentially a sodium fluoride dentifrice containing the broad-spectrum antibacterial agent triclosan (0.3 percent) and the copolymer PVM/MA (polyvinyl methyl ether malic acid), also marketed under the trade name Gantrez (2 percent). Triclosan has been used in soaps and deodorants for more than 20 years. Its broad spectrum of activity encompasses a large range of oral bacteria, and it is compatible with other ingredients in oral products. The combination of triclosan and PVM/MA inhibits crystal growth and is effective as an antitartar agent, but not the most common.


Fairbrother KJ, Kowolik MJ et al, The comparative clinical efficacy of pyrophosphate/triclosan, copolymer/triclosan and zinc citrate triclosan dentifrices for the reduction of supragingival calculus formation. J Clin Dent 8 (Special Issue):62-6, 1997.


Common Active Ingredients: contains: Sodium Monofluorophosphate (0.14%), Zinc Citrate Trihydrate, Sodium Fluoride 0.243% (Anticavity Toothpaste)

Common Inactive Ingredients: , Tetrasodium Pyrophosphate, Sodium Lauroyl Sarcosinate, Flavor, Sodium Saccharin, Cellulose Gum, Sodium Lauryl Sulfate, Titanium Dioxide, FD&C Blue #1, FD&C Yellow #5 Sorbitol, Water, Hydrated Silica, Sodium Gluconate, Stannous Chloride, Flavor, Sodium Carrageenan, Hydroxyethylcellulose, Sodium Saccharin, Sodium Hydroxide, Glycerin, Sorbitol, Hydrated Silica, Sodium Bicarbonate, Propylene Glycol, Water, Pentasodium Triphosphate, Tetrapotassium Pyrophosphate, Sodium Hydroxide, Calcium Peroxide,FD&C Green #3

Pentasodium triphosphate acts as a preservative and an unproven remineralization aid.



0 comments:

Post a Comment

Please Leave your take on these notes and mcqs. Your feedback is much appreciated.

 

Disclaimer

Every effort has been made to ensure that this information is accurate and within generally accepted medical standards.The information given at this site is for educational purposes only and is not sufficient for medical decisions. I disclaim any liability for the acts of any physicians or any other individual who receives any information on any medical procedure through this web site. I accept no legal responsibility for any injury and/or damage to persons or property from any of the suggestions or material discussed herein. The reader should confirm the information in this text using other authoritative source prior to use.

Disclosure Policy

  • I occa­sion­ally make rec­om­men­da­tions and post links for which I get compensation.

  • These rec­om­men­da­tions are based first and fore­most on their merit.

  • Most affil­i­ate links are added inci­den­tally or sub­se­quently. Some links are direct, and do not have any affil­i­a­tion or compensation.

  • Some endorse­ments are obtained through com­pen­sa­tion, such as free review copies.

For More Information see Disclosure Policy

Visitors Since January 2010